Twenty-five years of post-soviet russian agriculture: geographic trends and contradictions


The article suggests an analysis of structural and regional changes in Russian agriculture and the contradictory tendencies of its development over the last 25 years. The author examines the regional differences in the acreage decrease that has not hampered the intensification of crop production and growth of grain exports. The changes in balances of production, consumption, export and import of grain, meat and milk are traced year by year, as well as regional shifts in key products outputs. The dynamics of different types of livestock and poultry, as well as the change of the ratio of meat and milk production in agricultural enterprises, farms and personal plots of population are investigated. The increasing concentration of production in agricultural holdings and large enterprises is promoting the urban food supply, but affects the spatial polarization of agriculture. Changes in production as a result of the crisis and modernization of agriculture are examined on the background of declining agricultural employment, the non-prestige farm labor and its low pay. This resulted in growing unemployment in rural areas and in spread of moving rural residents to cities for earnings. Their outflow from the regions nearby to Moscow agglomeration has blocked the development of agriculture. The article widely uses graphics and maps for the analysis.
Keywords: сельское хозяйство, производство, экспорт, импорт, зерновые культуры, мясо, молоко, концентрация, регионализация, сельское население, занятость, отходничество.