The ways of origin of the Northern Palaearctic bloodsucking insects’ fauna on the example of fleas (Siphonaptera), mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae)
The territory of Fennoscandia and northwestern European Russia were released from glacier cover in the upper Pleistocene and had been again settled by bloodsucking insects during the last 11 thousand years. The sources of the formation of the North Palaearctic fauna of such groups of bloodsucking insects as fleas (Siphonaptera), mosquitoes (Culicidae) and black flies (Simuliidae) were different in the post-glacial period. One of them was the fauna of the ancient Mediterranean and southern Europe, others were the faunas of northeastern China and Primorye. The latter two, in their turn, are closely related with palaeo-faunistic centers of Eastern Asiatic subregion of the Palaearctic and Indomalayan realms. Besides, some species and genera of fleas, mosquitoes, and black flies were spreading from the western American subregion of the Nearctic through Beringia.
Keywords: блохи, кровососущие комары, мошки, фауна, Северная Палеарктика, пути формирования, Siphonaptera, Culicidae, Simuliidae.