Radiation Neurobiology of Long-Range Flights

Radiation neurobiology is an interdisciplinary field of science studying the effect of radiation on the nervous system at different levels of its organization (biochemical, molecular, cellular, and system), including the higher integrative brain activity, influence on health, and protection against ionizing radiation. A review of studies on the influence of cosmic irradiation on cells and tissues of the central nervous system using photons, X-ray and gamma ray radiation, as well as heavy ions in doses of less than 2 Gy, obtained in modern accelerators is presented. A useful information of the higher doses of radiation, at which earlier unstudied biological reactions arise, is given. Special attention is paid to the last research related to using a spectrum of particles and doses corresponding to cosmic irradiation. This review is based on the results of contemporary works of foreign authors little known in our country.
Keywords: радиобиология, пилотируемые космические полеты, ионизирующие излучения, центральная нервная система, радиационные риски, радиационная защита.