On the Origin and Evolution of Cyanobacteria

The review considers problems of evolution of cyanobacteria from the standpoint of comparative phylogenomics, including geobiological aspects of the origin of these prokaryotes, the appearance of oxygenic photosynthesis, multicellularity, and diazotrophy. Special attention is paid to the contribution of different genetic processes (mutations, genome rearrangements, genome reduction, horizontal gene transfer) to implementing the ways of evolution of cyanobacteria genomes. There were generalized the patterns of genetic variability associated with(a) the level of gene polymorphism,(b) the expansion of gene families, and (c) genomic rearrangements mediated by mobile elements. Based on information of genomic phylogeny, a modified scheme of a possible sequence of evolutionary stages in the main taxonomic groups of cyanobacteria was constructed on the scale of the geological history of the planet.
Keywords: эволюция, филогения, геномика, цианобактерии, оксигенный фотосинтез, многоклеточность, генетическая изменчивость, горизонтальный перенос генов. On the Origin and Evolution of Cyanobacteria.